You Have More Bones Than You Think

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Because the ossification process can differ so much from human to human, we have a wide range of potential bone numbers.

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To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Cartilage: The flexible connective tissue that is turned to bone by osteoblasts.
Osteoblasts: Cells that control calcium and mineral deposition to turn cartilage into bone.
Sesamoids: Bones embedded in tendons or muscles.
Fabella: A large sesamoid bone occasionally found behind the knee joint.
Coccyx: The small set of semi-fused triangular bones at the end of the vertebral column.
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Script Writer, Editor and Video Director and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia (@garirius)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder:



Goldberg I, Nathan H. (1987). Anatomy and pathology of the sesamoid bones. The hand compared to the foot. International Orthopaedics. 11(2):141-7. Retrieved from:

Vineet K. Sarin Gregory M. Erickson Nicholas J. Giori A. Gabrielle Bergman Dennis R. Carter (2003). Coincident development of sesamoid bones and clues to their evolution. The Anatomical Record.5: 174-180. Retrieved from:

Tao Sun, Lingxiang Wang, Haitao Zhao,Wenjuan Wu,and Wenhai Hu (2016). Prevalence, morphological variation and ossification of sesamoid bones of the forefoot: a retrospective radiographic study of 8,716 Chinese subjects. 2(3): 91–96. Retrieved from:

Postacchini F, Massobrio M. (1983). Idiopathic coccygodynia: Analysis of fifty-one operative cases and a radiographic study of the normal coccyx. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. 65(8): 1116-1124. Retrieved from:

Meals, Roy. (2019). Personal Communication.

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